What is assisted reproductive technology?
What is assisted reproductive technology ? If it seems difficult to you to understand this, we are ready to provide you with detailed and accessible information about the ART area and all its varieties. We will give you a clear understanding of the nuances and processes.
The main definition of assisted reproductive technology
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) - includes medical procedures to combat infertility. Accordingly, this area includes the following possible treatment options: In-vitro fertilization, Ovulation induction, Artificial insemination, In Vitro Maturation, Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection, Physiologic Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection, and others.. The main goal of this industry is to provide a safe and effective way to achieve the goal - to become parents. In the last 35 years, almost 3.7 million children have been born through assisted reproductive medicine.
Fertility treatments in assisted reproductive technology ( ART ).
Treatment with assisted reproductive technologies ( ART ) is extremely diverse. At present, doctors aim to overcome even the most complex types of problems related to the human reproductive system. New types of programs and ART procedures are entering the market to help couples fight fertility. Our agency currently offers all their types. In the future, we offer you to get acquainted with the methods and types of treatment in more detail.
1. Ovulation induction (OI)
Ovulation induction is a medical type of treatment that is accompanied by taking medications to stimulate patient ovaries. Usually, the medications are prescribed by a doctor on the first days of the menstrual cycle, from the second day. The whole process takes place under the supervision of a doctor and ultrasound monitoring of follicle growth. Usually this type of treatment is recommended for women who do not ovulate, or ovulation is irregular. Depending on the situation, two methods can be used: partial oestrogen agonists or aromatase inhibitors or FSH and LH subcutaneous injections. The percentage of pregnancy varies from 15 to 40% according to the situation. This type of treatment has a risk of hyperovulation and multiple pregnancies, but this risk is small if you are under the constant supervision of your doctor.
2. Artificial insemination or IUI
Artificial insemination - This is a procedure of introducing a man's biological material into a woman's womb under the supervision of a doctor. Doctors recommend this procedure in the following cases:
- With good sperm quality, but obstruction of the fallopian tubes or problems in sexual intercourse.
- The need to use donor sperm.
As for the methods used in this type of treatment, it is the stimulation of the patient's ovaries and subsequently in accordance with the results of stimulation - the preparation and introduction of a sperm catheter into the uterus. After the procedure, the patient remains in a supine position for up to 30 minutes. The risks of this procedure are the same as in ovulation induction. The percentage of pregnancy is 10 - 20%.
3. In-vitro fertilisation (IVF)
In vitro fertilization is a more complex, but at the same time more effective treatment plan offered to couples with complex cases, such as: poor sperm count, pelvic pathology, late fertility and significant duration of infertility. This process begins with testing a woman and a man. Based on their tests, the woman is prescribed medication that she will take during stimulation. On the appropriate day between the 12th and 15th day of the cycle, the date of aspiration of oocytes in the hospital is prescribed for the woman. This procedure takes up to an hour and is performed under local anesthesia. Upon completion, the patient spends in the ward from 1 to 2 hours. At the same time, the man surrenders his material (semen) which will later be introduced into the storage environment of oocytes for fertilization. From this point, we count 6 days to create a number of embryos to the state of blastocysts. Upon their creation, the embryo can be transferred to the uterus or frozen for later use. Success rates depend on the patient's age, but our agency, according to statistics, has a successful pregnancy rate of approximately 65%..
4. In Vitro Maturation (IVM)
In Vitro Maturation this is the treatment program that is recommended for women with low ovarian follicles reserve. For them, a separate stimulation plan is developed with a minimum or no medication. The doctor constantly monitors the growth of follicles with the beginning of the menstrual cycle. When the follicles grow to approximately 10 millimeters, the patient is scheduled to aspirate oocytes under local anesthesia. The oocytes are then placed in a special medium and cultured until fully mature. At the stage of maturation, embryologists perform the procedure of fertilization and subsequent cultivation of embryos.
5. Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
ICSI is a ART procedure that is part of the In Vitro Fertilisation Program. This part begins when oocytes and sperm combine to form embryos. ICSI fertilizes 50% to 80% of eggs. The procedure has two methods:
- Introduction of the entire amount of sperm biomaterial into the environment where the oocytes are located.
- To select one specific spermatozoide, which is introduced into the middle of a particular oocyte using a micropipette.
This type of fertilization accordingly increases the chances of success of the program. As soon as the procedure is completed, the process of culturing embryos begins.
6. Physiological intracytoplasmic sperm injection ( PICSI )
Physiological intracytoplasmic sperm injection - This is a method of fertilizing an oocyte with sperm, which is recommended in cases of unsuccessful attempts at ICSI in-vitro fertilization, poor quality of embryos or their poor cultivation (excluding cases of bad oocyte quality ), after several miscarriages. Before the male partner sperm is introduced into the oocyte during this procedure, it is placed in a special medium with hyaluronan hydrogel. The embryologist selects the most mature sperm and only then inserts them into the oocyte with special devices. This procedure has no risks and is a separate stage before ICSI fertilization.
7. Preimplantation Genetic Screening ( PGS )
PGS and PGD are available to all patients undergoing IVF programs. These are two types of genetic testing of the embryo before it is transferred to the uterus for a certain number of chromosomes and to identify possible pathological diseases. Such testing is usually performed on day 3-6 of embryo cultivation and also gives us the opportunity to learn its gender for the ability to balance the family. Speaking about the statistics of the success of programs with PGS testing, we can without any hesitation add 20-25% of success in accordance with the implantation of embryos in the uterus, which results in a positive pregnancy.
8. Conclusions about what is assisted reproductive techniques
Without a doubt, it should be noted that assisted reproductive technologies are an important step in medicine. All fertility treatments that are part of this industry. Each year, assisted reproductive technology clinics conduct approximately 30,000 ART cycles for couples who need it and help them achieve their most cherished goal of becoming a parent. There is no risk of birth defects . Our agency is no exception, we are happy to help and provide the best treatment plan to anyone who needs it. Our coordinators are always happy to contact you, in case of questions please write to our email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
M.D., IVF specialist, gynecologist, reproductive endocrinologist, expert of ultrasound diagnostics.